28 risks of chest binding

Some well known information about binding was finally proven empirically, for the first time ever, and published last week in Culture, Health, and Sexuality:  An International Journal for Research, Intervention, and Care.  The data was collected in the form of an online survey, where participants self-reported about their preferences, habits, and symptoms, as it relates to binding their chests.  The sample size was 1,800 people, from 38 countries, ages 18-66 years old, who were either assigned female at birth, or intersex, but encompassed 70 different gender identities.  The data was collected in April and May of 2014.

I highly recommend reading this article.  View the full article here:  Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults:  a community engaged, cross-sectional study.

Although very little from this study may be surprising among people who have experience with binding, this data is so important, because sometimes it takes surveys and studies to change public opinions, and hopefully that continues to happen sooner rather than later.  Specifically, if harmful effects are proven, maybe pressure will be put on health insurance companies so that more people can access top surgery.


97.2% of respondents reported at least one negative outcome from binding.  The most common symptoms were:

1. back pain (53.8%)
2. overheating (53.3%)
3. chest pain (48.8%)
4. shortness of breath ((46.6%)
5. itching (44.9%)
6. bad posture (40.3%)
7. shoulder pain (38.9)

Other symptoms included (and some of these are really severe):

8. rib fractures
9. rib or spine changes
10. shoulder joint “popping”
11. muscle wasting
12. numbness
13. headache
14. fatigue
15. weakness
16. lightheadedness/dizziness
17. cough
18. respiratory infections
19. heartburn
20. abdominal pain
21. digestive issues
22. breast changes
23. breast tenderness
24. scarring
25. swelling
26. acne
27. skin changes
28. skin infections

From the article:

“Although binding is associated with many negative physical health outcomes, it is also associated with significant improvements in mood and mental health. In response to open ended questions about mental health effects and motivations for binding, participants consistently affirmed that the advantages of binding outweighed the negative physical effects.  Many participants said that binding made them feel less anxious, reduced dysphoria-related depression and suicidality, improved overall emotional wellbeing and enabled them to safely go out in public with confidence.”

The most surprising finding from this study was,
“Commercial binders were the binding method most consistently associated with negative health outcomes, possibly because such binders have the potential to provide more compression than other binding methods. This finding is inconsistent with community perceptions that commercial binders represent the safest option.”
Another thought about this though:  binders were the most common, by far, so people are wearing these longer, and more consistently than other methods, which allows more severe symptoms to start to be apparent.  That seems pretty logical and straightforward.


different methods for binding your chest
The methods people reported using are as follows, from most common to least common:
-commercial binders
-sports bras
-shirt layering
-multiple sports bras
-elastic bandages
-athletic compression wear
-neoprene compression wear
-duct tape or plastic wrap
-belts, scarves, tight fabric, back braces, undersized swim suits, girdles, panty-hose

The first time I bound my chest, I used duct tape, for a drag show.  This was about 10 years ago.  I quickly moved on to ace bandages.  Shortly after, a trans-friend gave me one of his old binders that had stretched too much for him to feel comfortable in.  It was too big for me, but it was pretty effective anyway.  Still, I didn’t like it at all, preferring to just layer my shirts.  Over the next 10 years, I’ve purchased 2 binders from Underworks, and 3 binders that were actually almost tolerable, just compressing the breast region, and from the outside looking like a ribbed tank-top.  Still, I didn’t like it at all, and only very rarely wore any of these things.  Like, if we were going out and then going to a movie, I might wear the binder, but as soon as we’d get to the movie theater, I’d go to the bathroom just to take the thing off, because it’s not a huge deal, while sitting in the dark.

Many many people wear binders every single day, for over 8 hours per day, for years.  This study aims to understand how prevalent negative outcomes are, identify the risk factors, and develop evidence-based recommendations for health care professionals and people who bind.  I hope this study paves the way for future changes.  I’m just picturing binders coming with the warning, “May cause dizziness, drowsiness, headache, numbness, swelling… [etc.]  Talk to your doctor if…

If you’re interested in another study about trans- and gender non-conforming people, Here’s an interesting one that I summarized:  “A Gender Not Listed Here.”


-Works cited: Sarah Peitzmeier, Ivy Gardner, Jamie Weinand, Alexandra Corbet & Kimberlynn Acevedo (2016): Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study, Culture, Health & Sexuality.

30 Comments on “28 risks of chest binding”

  1. Kris says:

    It speaks volumes that despite the health risks and dangers, so many of us still choose to wear binders. So how people can say being trans is a “choice”, is beyond my comprehension. Thank you for this most interesting post. Take care, Kameron

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Thank you so much for posting this. I haven’t experienced too many negative effects from binding – mostly just overheating and bloating. I still can’t figure out if the bloating is caused by binding or if it’s just random. Correlation does not equal causation and all that. 🙂


  3. sam davies says:

    The other day I received the binder I’d ordered online. It is my first. I forgot to step into it and tried to put it on over my head. Okay, once I’d come to my senses, I stepped into it and couldn’t be happier. A trans woman friend with gynecomastia, when needing to present as male, recommended spanx for men. While googling spanx, I actually came across a product designed and geared toward men with ‘moobs.’ Perfect!, I thought. And, so far, perfect it is. While I highly recommend this avenue, it obviously is not for everyone. Be safe in your choices.


  4. What I want to know is where did you get the 3 binders that only compress the chest?


  5. Liam says:

    I have several binders, but wear them only occasionally. I hate the things with a passion. They are a constant reminder of “those things up there” and actually usually worsen my dysphoria.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Alex says:

    One time I doubled up on sports bras, which is a binding method. After a few weeks, my stomach started killing me. I was really sick. Eventually, I figured out my abdominal pain was from that, so I took them off and I felt bet


  7. Mikey says:

    Hi, just wanted to know real quick if binding can increase blood pressure? Thank you


    • janitorqueer says:

      Hey I’m not positive one way or another, but I would guess that it definitely could. Especially if you’re experiencing shortness of breath and / or hot flashes / excessive sweating.


  8. David Isaac says:

    I am currently experiencing moderate pain on my ribcage from binding. I am also having a dry cough which could only be a leftover from the cold I had three weeks ago but it worries me in combination with the pain. It i a very bearable pain but after binding for almot three years, this is the only time it occured (this badly at least)
    I am a little concerned about this.


    • janitorqueer says:

      Would you be comfortable seeing a doctor about it? It could help to have a medical professional assess you. Or possibly a chiropractor could help too… Hope things improve for you!


  9. Nat says:

    Is there any way you could tell me if there is a risk for binding with a sports bra and shortness of breath? I typically do one or double up but I want to know if this whole breathing thing is 1. even possible or 2. all in my head.


    • janitorqueer says:

      Hey Nat, Sorry it took me a while to get back to you – I think it would depend on how tight the sports bras are. In general, getting a binder that fits properly and isn’t too constricting would be the best way to go because the compression would be distributed evenly, ideally. Shortness of breath is definitely a possibility if your rib cage is being constricted. Hope this helps… Moderation is key.


  10. Dot says:

    I am a cis woman but I was thinking about investing in a binder for cosplay since I am often in drag. I am worried about any permanent damage to my breasts. I quite like them as they are and want to breastfeed my baby. Is this something to worry about? Any advice? Thank you.


    • janitorqueer says:

      Hey Dot, I think the two things to keep in mind for binding are, 1. Make sure it’s a proper fit. There are binder companies out there that will go above and beyond to help with this – take measurements, see what they suggest, offer free returns, etc. GC2B is a company that comes to mind. And then 2. Bind in moderation. If you’re binding for short intervals (and I’d even say 3-4 hours is a short-ish interval (many people bind 12+ hrs a day… If you’re using a binder for a few hours at a time, and not every day, I don’t think there’s much long term risk. Remember to listen to your body though!


  11. Anonymous says:

    I’ve been binding for about two months now, and I’d like to know from experience; can binding can cause rashes?


    • janitorqueer says:

      Yes, binding can cause rashes. I’m going to venture a guess and say it’s worse in the summer because sweat and humidity can cause extra chafing. Make sure to give your skin “breathing breaks!”


  12. alex says:

    NEVER GET UNDERWORKS! Their binders are menu for cis guys that grew a chest they are not for people with xy chromosomes their binders can: cut, bruise, fracture, sprain and pull/ tear muscles. Gc2b is a website that makes binders (full and half length) for trans men (or anyone with xy chromosomes)


  13. theodore says:

    duck tape and really any adhesive can scare the tissue and mess up respiratory system cant it.


  14. Luna says:

    Is binding with bandages a safe option for someone who’s questioning/ not out yet?


  15. Anonymous says:

    “duct tape or plastic wrap” “I quickly moved on to ace bandages” NEVER DO THIS N E V E R!?! this can SERVERALY damage your chest and stop you from geting top sergery and cause other heath issuses!! Fist THINK Your puting DUCK TAPE on BARE SKIN!! NEVER DO THAT And ace bandeges have been proven to be a bad way of binding PLEASE GET A BINDER FROM SITES like Gc2b ect sites where the binders are ment for trans people NOT AMAZON Tho i understand there expanshive if you cant get um wear big baggy clothing Or if you cant because your familys not supportive find a frind you trust and ship it there so your family dosen’t know PLEASE BIND SAFELY ~Love you all~ (sites for binders)


  16. Anonymous says:

    thank you 😊 my grandson loves this site

    Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s